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Basic Knowledge of Energy Storage Systems: Battery, PCS, BMS, EMS

Views: 17     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2024-04-15      Origin: Site


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The battery in an energy storage system is a key component used to store electrical energy in case of emergency.

Battery type: Commonly used battery types in energy storage systems include lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, sodium-sulfur batteries, etc. Each type of battery has its advantages and applicable scenarios.

Lithium-ion battery: Lithium-ion battery is one of the most common battery types for energy storage systems and is widely used in portable devices, electric vehicles, and home energy storage systems. It has the characteristics of high energy density, lightweight and long life.

Cycle life: The cycle life of a battery refers to the number of charge and discharge cycles that the battery can perform. Cycle life is usually related to factors such as battery type, manufacturing process and usage conditions.

Capacity: The capacity of a battery indicates the amount of electrical energy the battery can store. Capacity is generally measured in ampere hours (Ah) or kilowatt hours (kWh). The capacity of an energy storage system depends on the total capacity of the connected battery packs.

Deep Discharge: Deep discharge is the point at which a battery is discharged below its rated capacity. The level of deep discharge is usually related to the design and manufacture of the battery. Excessive deep discharge may shorten the life of the battery.

Charge and discharge efficiency: The charge and discharge efficiency of the battery indicates the degree of loss of electrical energy during the charging and discharging process. High-efficiency batteries minimize energy loss when charging and discharging.

Battery Management System (BMS): A battery management system is a device used to monitor and manage batteries. It can monitor battery status, temperature, voltage and other parameters, and optimize battery performance and extend life by controlling the charge and discharge process.

Safety: Battery safety is an important consideration. Certain battery types may have risks such as overcharging, over-discharging, and overheating, so corresponding safety measures need to be taken, such as overcharge protection, temperature monitoring, etc.

Environmental impact: Different types of batteries have different impacts on the environment. When considering energy storage systems, in addition to performance and economic factors, the environmental performance and recycling of batteries also need to be considered.

Cost: Battery cost is an important component of the overall cost of an energy storage system. As technology advances and economies of scale increase, the cost of batteries gradually decreases.

  • PCS in energy storage systems

  • pcs

PCS (Power Conversion System) is a key component in the energy storage system, responsible for managing the conversion, dispatching and control of electric energy.

Function: The main function of PCS is to convert DC power in the energy storage system into AC power, and to convert AC power from the power grid or other power generation sources into DC power to meet the charging and discharging needs of the energy storage system.

Inverter and converter: PCS usually includes inverter and converter. An inverter converts DC power into AC power, while a converter converts AC power into DC power.

Electric energy dispatching: PCS realizes the electric energy dispatching of the energy storage system by controlling the flow direction of electric energy and the frequency and voltage of the current. It can output electrical energy from the energy storage system to the grid, or input electrical energy from the grid into the energy storage system.

Frequency and voltage regulation: PCS participates in the regulation of grid frequency and voltage by adjusting the frequency and voltage of the output current to maintain the stable operation of the grid.

Capacity and Power: The capacity and power of a PCS determine the amount of electrical energy and power levels it can handle. The scale and application scenarios of the energy storage system will affect the selection of PCS with appropriate capacity and power.

Grid interconnection: PCS enables energy storage systems to be interconnected with the grid to provide flexible power dispatch and support the smooth operation of the grid. It can realize the charging and discharging operations of the energy storage system by controlling the flow direction of current.

Power quality: PCS also needs to pay attention to the quality of power during the power conversion process to ensure that the output AC power meets the standards and requirements of the power grid and avoids negative impacts on the power grid.

Efficiency: PCS efficiency is an important consideration. High-efficiency PCS can minimize energy loss during the electrical energy conversion process and improve the overall performance of the energy storage system.

Safety: PCS needs to have safety performance, including overload protection, short circuit protection, temperature monitoring and other functions to ensure the safe operation of the system.

Communication and control: PCS is usually connected to the monitoring and control system of the energy storage system to monitor and control the operating status of the system through the communication interface.

  • BMS in energy storage system

  • BMS

BMS (Battery Management System) is a crucial component in the energy storage system, responsible for monitoring, managing and protecting the performance of the battery pack.

Battery monitoring: BMS monitors the voltage, current, temperature and other parameters of the battery to understand the working status of the battery in real time. This helps ensure proper operation of the battery pack and provides basic data for performance analysis.

Balance control: BMS can implement balance control between each battery cell in the battery pack. This is to prevent differences between battery cells, ensure stable performance of the entire battery pack, and increase service life.

Charge and discharge control: BMS is responsible for controlling the charging and discharging process of the battery to ensure that it is carried out within a safe range, and scheduling the charging and discharging of the battery as needed.

Temperature Management: The operating temperature of a battery has a significant impact on its performance and lifespan. The BMS monitors the temperature of the battery and takes measures, such as cooling or heating, when necessary to maintain a suitable operating temperature.

State estimation: BMS performs battery state estimation by monitoring and analyzing battery parameters, that is, estimating the remaining life, capacity and health status of the battery, which helps optimize the use and maintenance of the battery.

Safety protection: BMS has a variety of safety functions, including overcharge protection, over-discharge protection, short-circuit protection, etc., to prevent overcharge, over-discharge or other abnormal conditions in the battery pack and ensure the safe operation of the system.

Communication interface: BMS is usually connected with other components of the energy storage system, such as PCS (power conversion system) and monitoring system, through communication interfaces to achieve coordination and control of the entire system.

Fault diagnosis: BMS can perform fault diagnosis, detect abnormal conditions in the battery pack, and provide measures such as alarming or automatically disconnecting the circuit to prevent further expansion of the fault.

Data recording and analysis: BMS records battery operating data, which is crucial for analyzing battery performance, formulating maintenance plans and system optimization.

Compatibility: BMS needs to be compatible with different types and brands of batteries, so it has certain versatility and scalability.

  • EMS in energy storage systems


EMS (energy storage energy management system) can quickly realize station-side management and remote centralized control. Provide smarter, easier to use and safer energy storage energy management solutions for energy storage power stations, especially industrial and commercial energy storage. The system needs to support multiple strategies for common energy storage power stations and can be flexibly customized and implemented according to actual scenarios. At the same time, based on intelligent strategic operation, power curves are dynamically generated based on load prediction and conditional constraints to ensure energy safety and maximize revenue.

Data collection and processing: The EMS system collects important data from PCS, BMS, electricity meters, air conditioners, fire protection, load and other units in real time, accurately and comprehensively through various communication methods (Ethernet, RS485, CAN, etc.). The collected data is transformed and processed in combination with the system's internal setting data and control logic to generate display data, statistical data, alarm information, and remote control instructions.

Data storage and display: Data is stored in cloud servers, local touch screens, and local PCs. The stored information includes telemetry data, remote signaling data, alarm information, operation records, events, etc. Real-time data can display the overall operating status and electrical parameters of the energy storage system through the human-machine interface, mobile phone, and WEB terminal, including but not limited to voltage, current, power, switch status, system alarm status, etc. Provides an intuitive graphical monitoring and operation interface, and can adjust and optimize the human-machine interface and operation according to user needs.

Energy storage scheduling and optimization: The EMS energy management system can intelligently schedule and optimize the energy storage system. According to factors such as grid supply and demand, energy prices, user needs and other factors, it can reasonably arrange the charging and discharging strategies of energy storage equipment to achieve efficient use of energy. .

Peak and valley filling and load balancing: The inverter can control the size and stability of the output power according to load demand or grid requirements. By controlling the inverter, the power regulation and optimization of the energy storage system can be achieved to meet different power needs.

Coordination of energy storage and renewable energy: The EMS energy management system can coordinate the cooperative operation between the energy storage system and renewable energy. When renewable energy is highly volatile, the energy storage system can steadily output electric energy through charge and discharge control, improving the reliability and stability of renewable energy.

Safe and stable operation of the energy storage system: The EMS energy management system can monitor and diagnose the operating status of the energy storage system in real time, including battery power, temperature, voltage and other parameters. It can provide early warning and take corresponding measures to prevent safety hazards caused by overcharge, over-discharge, over-temperature and other problems in the energy storage system.

Energy market participation and economic operations: The EMS Energy Management Department can participate in energy trading and power market activities through the interface with the energy market. It can perform intelligent dispatching and operation based on factors such as energy market prices and policies to maximize the economic benefits of the energy storage system. Energy management systems (EMS) play an important role in energy storage systems. Through data collection, processing, storage and display, they realize intelligent scheduling and optimization of energy storage systems to meet different power needs and improve the reliability of renewable energy. and stability. The system can also participate in energy trading and power market activities to maximize the economic benefits of the energy storage system.

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